Part of Lewiston City's contribution toward celebrating Utah's Centennial Year is the formation of an Historical Board made up of a number of our older citizens, myself, and Joan Shaw as writer. Our object in this was to get as much as possible of our older citizen's collective memory on paper and distributed to our citizens via the water bill mailing. The piece below is the first in this series.
Joan Shaw has lived with her family in Lewiston since 1969. She's been a writer and editor at USU and the Agricultural Experiment Station, has published fiction in journals and magazines such as Mademoiselle, The Western Humanities Review, and Dialogue, and has had a book published, The Uncle and Other Stories, and two online novels published, Better if a Millstone, a mystery, and Hoqqam’s Sister and the Red DragonGoose, a science-fantasy.
We hope you enjoy these pieces. We especially welcome comments and further information on the subjects covered.
Russell N. Hirst, Jr., M.D.
Mayor, Lewiston City
Historical Report #1
A QUESTION OF ORIGINS
In Utah, from Cache Valley's U.S. Highway 91 near the Idaho border, turn at the Forest Service sign on 12100 North and follow this gently winding route north and east. You'll pass small, well-kept farms, neat fields, a lot of black and white cows. Behind and to your left will be the pale and misty sweep of the valley in winter. Where the road you're traveling curves to the right through a tangled stand of bare trees and brush, you'll see, looming up ahead of you, a grand old granary that's stood on the banks of High Creek for 133 years, pictured at the left.
With its rock foundation and four-foot high cupola, the building rises to approximately fifty feet. The bottom half is framed and covered with drop-lap siding. The top half is stacked two-by-fours, each course nailed to the one below.
The east and south are the good sides. The ghost of the attached mill--long gone--shows on the west side of the building in two strips of unpainted wood. There's a good bit of deterioration at the top, and some of the rock foundation has fallen away on the north. The flume could well have been behind this foundation; Florence Allen of Cove remembers the stream that had been diverted to it. The granary itself was once part of the High Creek Grist Mill built by William D. Hendricks and Goudy A. Hogan in 1862. (As of November 1999, the roof and part of the top courses of the building have collapsed.)
Another building of this type can be found at the southern end of Cache Valley, in Hyrum, at First North and Center, pictured below. It's said to be the tallest wooden granary in Utah, partly by virtue of the square, tower-like structure on the top. It was built by A.J. Peterson over a period of 13 years and opened for operation in 1918. This landmark has just recently been sold and is now destined for a new life as a private residence.
There are other two-by-four granaries in Cache Valley, though none so spectacular as these two. There are six still standing within a three-mile radius in Lewiston, Utah. Among them is the Bodily's granary on 800 South near South Main which is still used for storing grain, and the 1875 Bergeson granary on a hill overlooking the Gilt Edge Flour Mill which has been restored and renovated into a workshop and apartment.
On 1600 S., there are two granaries with interesting histories. At 200 W, Apostle Marriner Wood Merrill built a granary with a dovecote on the top, pictured below and now owned by Larry Hyer. And at 430 E., the Greg Karren property has a granary that was moved there by William Telford from its original site at the old Owen's mill on the west side of Lewiston.
East of Lewiston, in Richmond, the Valley Veterinary Service operates out of a small converted granary on 250 East. Another Richmond granary stands on the west side of Highway 91 on the Mendenhall property at 8588 North.
Further south, a modified granary set amid a cluster of homes near the Smithfield cemetery was moved there by author Joan Sanders many years ago and refurbished as a studio.
These buildings are distinguished by a construction that, at first blush, appears unique to this region, in that the corners are not notched or dovetailed as in other horizontal timber-walled structures in the West. (See sketches of corner joints on page 3.) Rather, the two-by-fours are stacked and nailed at intervals of six to eight inches, in a process some call "false timbering."
In many of these buildings, like the Cove granary and The Valley Veterinary Service office, every other board extends several inches through the corners, as pictured below, left on the vet's building. In others, the ends are sawed flush; two of these can be seen on Lewiston's Main Street between 300 and 800 South--the Lewiston Relief Society granary, still showing a wash of red paint, the corner of which is pictured below right, and the old Rogers granary on the Gregory property.
All derive their stability from solid two-by-four walls incorporated as the structure was built, dividing the granaries into compartments or bins. These walls show up on the outside as vertical lines formed by the ends of the two-by-fours. In Hyrum's granary, for instance, two lines show on all four sides of the granary, indicating nine compartments.
Most long-time residents agree that the wood in these valley granaries came primarily from old growth “red pine” found in the surrounding mountains. The belief states that these trees dated from centuries earlier during an era of heavier precipitation in the valley, and evidence of this growth can be found in sketches made by early explorers. Later studies showed the “red pine” used by the settlers was actually Douglas Fir. Dense and fine-grained, this old wood when cut and planed today is closer in texture and weight to hardwood than soft pine.
In attempting to discover the origins of two-by-four granary construction, we might look for a few minutes at the settlers who built them. Jenny Bergeson, daughter-in-law of an early Lewiston settler from Denmark, Niels Bergeson, mentions in her autobiography that Niels used the expertise of his shipbuilding forebears in the construction of his own granary. This link with shipbuilding in Denmark and, in fact, all Scandinavian countries, is one of the more fascinating aspects in searching out the background of these structures.
In early Scandinavia, timber was used widely not only for ships, and not only for farm houses, barns, and sheds, but also for elaborate churches and public buildings. Many of these old buildings in Scandinavia are considered national treasures today, some of them centuries old. Moreover, carpenters who had worked on this type of construction had more than likely learned their trade in the shipyards.
The shipbuilding trade couldn't brook shoddy workmanship; carpentry skills among nineteenth century Scandinavians were therefore honed to a fine edge early on. Scandinavian boys of six and seven often spent time after school working as helpers in the shipyards, and by twelve or fourteen, given enough interest in the work, they left school and were apprenticed to the trade. By the time carpenters reached journeyman or master, they'd have developed skills that would seem incredible today.
An additional fact in historic shipbuilding is that early wooden ships
were built from the outside in, with thick planks fastened together, edge
to edge, and with the ribs put in only after the shell had taken shape.
It's tempting to imagine this edge-to-edge technique carried over to the
two-by-four granaries found in this region. But Scandinavian building
construction on land invariably employed notched or dovetailed corners,
with chinking in the cracks.
Carpentry excellence was not confined to the Scandinavian countries, however. It was prevalent also in Germany and the Netherlands, as well as in the British Isles–where, in fact, there had been widespread shipbuilding going on as well.
People from all these countries, rich in woodworking skills, came to Cache Valley as immigrants. There were more than enough expert woodworkers here during the early part of the valley's settlement to have influenced the building of these granaries.
Perhaps the buildings' origins lie in the simple fact that seasoned wood was a luxury few pioneers could afford. In the best of all possible woodworking worlds, it takes a year for lumber to be considered seasoned enough to insure that boards incorporated into a structure will not warp. The pioneers at the time of their entrance into Cache Valley in the 1860s and 1870s were desperate for quick storage. Nailing stacked two-by-fours together would avoid the inevitable warping of green wood and, what's more, would guarantee very little shrinkage.
However, this rush into construction would not have held true for the tall Hyrum granary, built in the first and second decades of 1900, nor the Valley Veterinary's granary, built in 1906. A number of Lewiston's granaries, in fact, were built around the turn of the century.
The term "false timbering," mentioned earlier, has the sound of a building technique that might have been used generally in the last century, and not only in Cache Valley. This technique would result in the strongest possible wall at the time, well capable of withstanding pressures exerted by many tons of grain. For all we know, there may be many two-by-four granaries still standing throughout Utah and the West, unknown to all except those living near them. In fact, after this piece was first published, many other two-by-four buildings have come to light – located in Idaho and Wyoming.
Published information on Utah's rural outbuildings is scant, and on its two-by-four granaries nonexistent. Questioned about this lack, the architectural historian in the Utah State Historical Society office in Salt Lake described to me a new program to be inaugurated during Utah's Centennial year in which researchers will be sent out into Utah's farming communities to document as much as possible the architecture of rural outbuildings--a subject pretty much neglected up to now. The results of this program will be interesting to read. Perhaps in a few more years, information on Cache Valley's two-by-four granaries will become more available for those of us intrigued by this construction.
Photos of the High Creek Granary, the Hyrum Granary,
corner extensions on the valley vet building, and flush corners on
the Relief Society granary, by Joan Shaw
Drawing of four types of corner joints by Melanie Shaw